Interpreting Wave-Particle Duality Using Scientific Models

The Black Box is a simple and compelling demonstration that introduces students to the power of scientific models. Using this model-based perspective, students construct ideas about the behaviour of classical particles and waves. Students apply their ideas to predict the behaviour of light and electrons and verify their predictions using the included videos.


  • Lesson plans: Interpreting Wave-Particle Duality Using Scientific Models
  • Videos: Classical Wave Background (6:57 min); Wave-Particle Duality with Electrons (6:20 min); Wave-Particle Duality with Light (2:51 min)
  • Activities: Investigating the Nature of the Electron (worksheet and solutions)
  • Demonstrations: Black Box
  • Supplementary Materials: Wave-Particle Duality Investigation and more
  • Teacher-provided Materials: Black Box (drainage pipe and end caps, rope); transparencies, push pins, straw; paper cups, coloured sand

(Note: all lesson plans and worksheets provided as PDFs and modifiable MS Word documents)

Intended Audiences: Senior High (Gr 11-12)
Lesson Topics: Process of Science, Quantum, Waves
Price: Free